Indian architecture is the most enduring achievement of the Indian civilization. Indian architecture has evolved through centuries because of socio-economic, geographic condition and due to vast diversities. Indian architecture belongs to different periods of history that represents their respective period.
Ancient Indian Architecture
Ancient Indian architecture is as old as the history of the civilization. In India, the building activity dates back to the Indus Valley cities. The temples, Chaityas, Viharas, Stupas and other religious structures are some of the best examples of India’s ancient architectural. The distinct architectural style of temple construction in different parts was the result of geographical, climatic, ethnic, racial, historical and linguistic diversities.
One of the most spectacular pieces of ancient Indian architecture is the rock-cut structures. Most of these structures were related to various religious communities. Chaityas, Viharas and Rathas at Mahabalipuram are some of the great specimen of rock-cut architecture of ancient India.
British Colonial Indian Architecture
Colonization of Indian had a great impact on architecture style. A new chapter in Indian architecture began with colonization. The Dutch, Portuguese, the French and the English made a lasting impact on architecture. The colonial architecture culminated into what is called the Indo-Saracenic architecture.
The Indo-Saracenic architecture combined the features of Hindu, Islamic and western elements. The colonial Indian architecture can be seen in the Mutiny Memorial Church at Kanpur and the last garrison church in New Delhi. The Victoria Terminus, once the headquarters of the Great Indian Peninsular Railway, was the culminating masterpiece of this phase. Colonial architecture in India followed developments not only from metropolis but also took inspiration from existing Indian architecture.
With the coming of Muslims to India, several new architectural features were introduced. The development of Muslim Style of Architecture of this period is called the Indo-Islamic Architecture or the Indian Architecture influenced by Islamic Art. These architectural styles were neither strictly Islamic nor strictly Hindu. The architecture of the medieval period is divided into two main categories- the Imperial Style and the Mughal Architecture.
The Imperial Style developed under the patronage of the Sultans of Delhi. The Mughal Architecture was a blend of the Islamic Architecture of Central Asia and the Hindu Architecture of India. Some of the outstanding examples of Indo-Islamic architecture are the Qutub Minar, Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque, Fatehpur Sikri, Agra Fort, Taj Mahal and Red Fort.
Source | exploringincredibleindia